The existence of the human beeing on the territory of current Slovakia has been dated since the early paleolit and is ducumented with many finds like rests of Homo Neanderthalis in Gánovce by Poprad in eastern Slovakia and by Šaľa nad Váhom in western Slovakia. Since there Slovakia had been pernamently settled by various tribes and peoples till 5th century A. D. when the ancestors of Slovaks became dominant ethnicum in this space.
22 800 B.C. – the so called Venus of Moravany was created, the first appearance of Art
escavated by archeologists in the 1940th on the paleolitic settlement by Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany.
cca 6000 B. C. – agriculture became prevailing among the peoples settled on the territory of Slovakia.
1900 B. C. – beginning of Bronze Age. Mining obtained importance. The Slovak copper was exported throughout Europe. Building of the first walled setlements of „Mycenian“ type (Myšia Hurka near Poprad).
1200 B. C. – the so called Lusitian culture (Lužica, Lausitz in Germany) was spread through Slovakia. Some scholars think that this culture was protoslavic and the region of northern Slovakia and southern Poland was ancient homeland of Slavs. The rests of Lusitian culture survived on the territory of northern Slovakia till historical recorded appearance of the first Slavic tribes on the territory of Slovakia.
400 B. C. – the Celtic tribes (Boiohems, Kotins) occupied the south-western part of Slovakia and ruled the territory more than three centuries. They brought new technologies of metalurgy and production of iron tools, new technologies of pottery, textile production and agriculture. Start of construction town-like settlements (oppida) and minting of coins (BIATEC). Bratislava became firstly in its history real town. There are the first concret buildings and rests of a mint documented by archeologists here.
9 B. C. – downfall of the Celtic civilisation in central Europe under pressure of Dak, Germanic and Roman expansion. Establishing of the Roman provinces Panonia and Noricum in neighbourhood of Slovakia. Occupation of south-western Slovakia by the Germanic tribes Marcomans and Quads. About four centuries these Germanic tribes, later known under common name Suebs (Schwabs), ruled the western part of Slovakia.
6 A. D. – the Roman legions under command of the later Emperor Tiberius firstly attacked the territory of Slovakia during the war against the Germanic king (chief) Marobud. Romans started with political organisation of the Slovak territory. They built up and kept till definitive fall of their rule on the central Danube many walled fortresses and points on the territory of Slovakia as Stupava, Devin, Bratislava, Milanovce, Iža. Slovakia was a single country where Romans constructed civilian buildings outside the Limes Romanus.
21 A. D. – creation of Regnum Vannianum by Romans, a state-like body on the territory between the rivers Cusus (Váh) and Marus (Morava). The aim was to pacify the Roman border in Central Europe by creation of satelite Germanic state. This effort had never been fully achieved and the Roman – Germanic neighbourhood on the Central Danube was marked by periods of peaceful cooperation and devastating wars.
179 A. D. – during the so called Markoman war (166 – 180) the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius tried to establish the new Roman province on the territory of Slovakia – Marcomania. After his death Emperor Comodus gave up this aim. From this time came an inscription at the rock of Trenčín Castle telling about stay of Roman legion in the town Laugaritio during the winter 178-179. The town name in form Leukaristos is pictured on the maps of antique geograf Ptolemaios. The first recorded locality name from the territory of Slovakia (current Trenčín).
406 A. D. – the majority of Quad population withdrawed from Slovakia towards southern Germany. Territory of Slovakia bacame temporary homeland of numerous Germanic tribes escaping the Huns who dominated the Danube Basain in the first half of 5th century.
cca 470 – the last Quads leaved the territory of Slovakia. The depopulated land was soon occupied by Slavic tribes so that on beginning of 6th century the Slavs consolidated their power between Lower Crpathians Montains and Eastern Slovakia on the Northern side of Danube. The Western Slovakia behind Lower Carpathians Montains and Lower Austria was occupied until 568 by Langobards when they escaped due to Avars to Northern Italy.
568 – the nomadic Avars who were Turkic origin invaded the Danube Basain and became the dominant power in Central Europe till devastating attacks of Charlesmagne on the end of 8th century. During this time the local Slavic tribes were in majority under their political and military dominance.
623 – the Slavic tribes uprised against the Avar domination. Under leadership of Frankish merchant Samo (Samuel) they libarated and created the „empire“ which extended on the territory of current Slovakia, Eastern Austria, Moravia and Bohemia. Till Samo´s death in 658 they kept their independency and were able to defend themselves not only against Avars but against Frankish expansion (631) too. By the creation of Samo Empire the state-building processes started among the ancestors of Slovaks that were crowned by establishing of the first early feudal sates of the old Slovaks in principalities in Moravia and Slovakia (Nitra).
795 – the devastating defeats of Avars by Charlesmagne allowed the local Slavic chiefs who presumably helped to the Franks by these battles to liberate their people from the Avar yoke. The centralisation and state-building process among the old Slovaks culminated firstly by establishing of two principalities with centers in Nitra(va) and Morava.
828 – the first known old Slovak prince Pribina gave to consecrate the Christian church on his property in Nitra(va) by Salzburg archbishop Adalram.
833 – the Moravian prince Mojmir I unified the principalities of Moravia and Nitravia to one state which got later the name Great Moravia. The prince Pribina was expelled from his property and escaped to the Franks. From the Frankish king Ludwig the German he obtained a principality in Panonia where he was killed by Moravians in 861. The indipedency of Nitravia was partially preserved and its relation to Moravia was similar as relation between Wels and England.
863 – on the invitation of prince Rastislav the Bysantine mission of Sts. Konstantin (Cyrilus) and Methodius came to Greate Moravia. Prince Rastislav tried by invitation of this mission to achieve more political freedom and indipendency on the powerful Frankish Empire. Konstantin the Philosofer invented the new Slavic alphabet and translated the holy books into the old Slavic language. The Slavic and Slovak literature started.
871 – the king Svätopluk held the souverenity and indipendency of Great Moravia against efforts of Franks to subordinate his kingdom. Since there till his death in 894 the Roman Pope adressed letters to him with titul „dilectus filius“ which used to Frankish and Bysantine Emperors. The Great Moravia was on the top of its power and king Svätopluk ruled not only in Moravia and Slovakia but in northern Hungary, Lower Austria, Bohemia, Silesia, Lusitania and in southern Poland.
880 – the Pope Johanus VIII published the bull Industriae Tuae in which he establish the independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia on the top with archbishop Methodius. One episcopate had center in Nitra with bishop Wiching on the top. The old Slavic language was aknowledged as the forth ecclesiastical language beside Latin, Greek and Hebrew.
896 – after death of king Svätopluk (894) his sons Mojmír II and Svätopluk II started to fight for domination in the Empire. This situation used the old Magyar (Hungarian) nomadic tribes that invaded the Danube Basain. In a decade of fighting they defeated the military power of Great Moravia and became a dominant power in Central Danube region. Great Moravian princes Mojmir II and Svätupluk II probably perished in battles with old Magyars between 904 and 907.
907 – Battle near Bratislava. In three day lasting battle the old Magyar armies defeated the Bavarian military power. While no mention about the Great Moravian military forces in this battle the researchers lay this year as a dawnfall of Great Moravian Empire. The Moravian principality was split between Magyars, Bavarians and Czechs. The Nitra principality felt under domination of the old Magyar dynasty Arpads. From the Nitra prince line of Arpads (many of them had names of Slovak origin) came the later kings of Hungaria.
955 – at river Lech near Augsburg in Bavaria the old Magyar military forces were devastating defeated. The Magyars were pressed to leave their nomadic way of life, to settle in Panonia and to accept Christianity.
997 – the big pagan uprising under prince Koppany broke up in Panonia against later king of Hungaria Stephanus I. He escaped on the Slovak territory where before he had been the prince in Nitravia. The Slovak landlords Hunt and Poznan armored the prince Stephanus and helped him to defeat Koppany.
1000 – the prince Stephanus became the first king of Hungaria. This kingdom has never been a Magyar national state (not Hungary but Hungaria). The ethnic Magyars created till 1918 when the kingdom disappeared minority of its population only (between 30 – 40%).
1001 – The Polish ruler Boleslaw the Bold occupied Slovakia and kept it till 1025. Then it turned back to Hungarian Kingdom and kept his role as principality for future king.
1048 – prince Belo (later king Belo I) became ruler in Nitra principality. During his reign (till 1060) the principality led an independent foreign policy and minted its own coins.
1110 – king Koloman liquidated the Nitra principality and desintegrated its territory to prevent the kingdom before dynastic wars. Perceiving Slovak territory as a separate body in the Hungarian Kingdom remained till the collapse of kingdom in 1918. In the written sources was mentioned as Uper Hungary, Oberungarn, Felvidék, Horné Uhorsko, later since the 15th century as Windische Länder, Slováky, Slowakei, Slovensko, Sclavonia.
1222 – the king Andrew II issued so called Golden Bull which gave many privilegies to Hungarian nobility. According this Bull the nobility did not have to pay taxis, their property was inalienable, they have right to uprise when king did not respect their rights (ius resistendi). On the base of these rights was established so called Natio Hungarica, the caste of privileged people regardless of nationality. They used latin as a lingua franca and kept their status till 1848.
1238 – king Belo IV issued privilege to the town Trnava which became the first free King´s town in Slovakia.
1241 – the Tartars invaded the Hungarian Kingdom. They defeated the Hungarian armies and plundered the country more than one year. Only stone walled fortresses like Bratislava, Nitra and Spis Castle held out. The contry was depupulated therefore king Belo IV invited the German for settlement reason. Till the end of century many free king´s town and stone walled castles were established. The Germans obtained the special privileges as „hostes“.
1301 – the last king from the dynasty of Arpads died. By the election of new king the nobility was not united. The period of feudal anarchy started in the kingdom. The territory of Slovakia mastered in this period Matuš Čák of Trenčín with cooperation with east-Slovakian noble family Omodej (Amade). He did not aknowledge any Hungarian king and ruled his territory indipendently till his death in 1321. He got a name the Lord of Váh river and Tatra Montains and during the fight against the magyarisation in the 19th century he was pertracted as a Slovak ruler over the indipendent Slovak territory.
1307 – Charles Robert of Anjou became king of Hungaria. He consolidated the kingdom and period of development started.
1328 – king Charles Robert issued the privilege to Kremnica as a mining and minting town. The gold mines in Kremnica and silver mines in Banska Štiavnica and vicinity gave the base for glory of the Kremnica mint and its gold ducats (florens) which were heavier than original florens from Florence in Italy. The Kremnica mint is the oldest uninterrupted acting mint in the world.
1381 – the king Louis the Great issued the privilege to the Slovaks in the free king´s town Žilina. This documet is the first written record about indipendent political behaviour of Slovaks who achieved the same privileges as the German „hostes“.
1428 – the first military expedition of Husits from Bohemia achieved Slovakia. The period of political instability started in the country which lasted till 1460. On one side Husits terrorised the domestic nobility and towns ruled by German patriciate, on the other side they mobilised the local Slovak population to participate in the political life. The Czech language was spread as a lingua franca in literature and administration and replaced the official latin. The proces of slovakisation of the towns with German majority started and Slovaks prevailed in majority of Slovak towns.
1458 – Matej (Mathias) Corvinus bacame a king of Hungaria. He tried to build up a centralised modern state from the kingdom. He failed on the resistence of nobility. King Mathias is only one Hungarian king who has a place in the Slovak folk stories. Famous is statment among the Slovaks: The king Mathias died, the justice died.
1467 – the Academy Istropolitana, the first university in Hungaria was established in Bratislava.
1526 – in the battle by Mohacs the Osman Turks defeated the Hungarian armies under king Louis II command. The king was killed escaping from the battle field. This battle had a fatal consequence for the whole country. The new wave of feudal anarchy started, the kingdom had two kings coronated by the same bishop. They began to fight for domination. This situation used the Turks who occupied the current Hungary and from the Hungarian Kingdom Slovakia only remained in the hands of Hapsburg as legitime kings. The southern border of Slovakia became for more than 150 years battle field of plenty of Hapsburg – Osman wars.
1530 – Slovakia was firstly confronted with Turkish raid.
1536 – due to Turkish occupation of Lower Hungaria Bratislava became capital of country, the coronation town and seat of Diet. This position kept till revolution 1848. Then Pest (Budapest) became the capital.
1603 – the uprising of Stephan Bochkay against Hapsburg started. The declared reason was freedom of faith for protestants. In reality the main aim was keeping of feudal privileges of Hungarian noblemen against a modern absolutistic form of government as it was enforced in western Europe. By this uprising began a period of feudal revolts (the Magyar historiografy describes these uprisings as fight for the freedom, in realty they were fight for the freedom but for noblemen only and serfdom for all others). This period finished by peace treaty from Szathmar in 1711. The Hungarian noblemen kept their „freedom“ and country paid it with retardation not only to western Europe but to the western part of Hapsburg Monarchy too.
1608 – the Hungarian Diet adopted the first law which garanted the liguistic equality in towns where all three main country languages (Slovak, Magyar and German) should have the same rights.
1610 – the Lutheran synod was held in Žilina. It established the Lutheran ecclesiastical organisation in Hungaria. The structure was adopted for the Slovak majority of Church with guaranty of rights for German and Magyar believers. The organisation of Lutheran Church empowered perceiving of Slovakia as separate body in Hungarian Kingdom.
1627 – the gunpowder was succesful used in mining in Banská Štiavnica firstly in the world.
1635 – archbishop P. Pázmany founded a Catholic university in Trnava. The university became center of scientific and cultural life in Slovakia. The university contributed to the cultivation of Slovak language and its stabilisation based on western Slovak dialects.
1663 – the Osman Turks captured the main fortress of Hapsburg in Hungaria – Nové Zámky on the territory of southern Slovakia. This success shaked whole Europe. The Hight Porta achieved the top of his power in Central Europe. The fortress was recaptured by Hapsburgs 22 years later.
1683 – the Osman armies were defeated by Vienna. The process of reoccupying of Lower Hungaria by Hapsburgs started. It finished by peace treaty in Karlovac in 1699 when the Hungarian Kingdom was reunifying. The process of colonisation of depopulated land began which lasted more than a century. Thousends and thousends of Slovaks were resettled to so called Lower Land where they built up a new homeland.
1707 – at the Diet in Onod which was called during the Rakoci (Rakoczy) uprising (1703 – 1711) the two parlamentarians from ethnic Slovak Turiec county were killed and this county was canceled. This act is pertracted as the first nationalistic conflict between Slovaks and Magyars.
1757 – the Slovak general Andrej Hadik as a commander of Hapsburg Hussars composed from the Slovak conscripts from Trencin county captured during the seven years war Berlin. Ladislav Gabris – Skultety, a Slovak from Trencin county served in his regiment. He served in this regiment more then 80 years and died as 94 years standard-bearer in the saddle. It is the most long lasting military service every recorded. He participated in more then 250 battles and survived 5 Hapsburg Emperors.
1762 – the Mining Academy, the first technical university of this type in the world was founded in Banska Štiavnica.
1777 – the Empress Maria Theresia realized a school reform so called Ratio Educationis which introduced a mandatory scholastic attendance. Her most important adviser in this issue was Slovak A. F. Kollar.
1787 – the Catholic priest Anton Bernolak codified the first standard Slovak language. With this act the Slovak national revival started.
1791 – the Hungarian Diet adopted the first law which introduce in the Hungarian legal system the sancioned linguistic unequality. The process of powerful magyarisation started in the country.
1795 – the leaders of so called Hungarian Jacobins were executed in Buda (Budapest). They represented the last group of politicians in Hungaria that tried to rebuild the country on the base of national equality. They wanted to reshape the kingdom on the federative republic of souverene national states of Slovaks, Magyars, Romunians, Germans, Serbs and Croats. The spiritus movens of the group was a Serb I. Martinovic and a Slovak J. Hajnoczy.
1825 – the Magyar (Hungarian) Academie of Sciences was founded under leadership od S. Szechenyi. Its main aim was to magyarise the country and to create homogenous Magyar national state from Hungaria where more than 60% of inhabitants was non-Magyar ethnic origin.
1840 – the Diet adopted a new name of country. The old latin name Hungaria was replaced at Magyar name Magyarorszag (Hungary).
1842 – the Slovak Lutherans protested by the king against the efforts to magyarise the Slovak Lutheran Church and to attach it to the Magyar Calvinist Church.
1843 – the Slovak national leaders codified the so called Stur reform of standard Slovak language which is valid untill now.
1848 – during the revolution the Slovaks declared themselves as a nation (10 May) and started to fight for indipendency on Magyar government (19 September) that wanted powerful to magyarise the kingdom.
1861 – the national ansamble met in Martin and adopted Memorandum of the Slovak Nation a basic program for Slovak homerule in framework of Hungarian Kingdom.
1863 – Matica slovenská (Slovak Fellowship) was founded. Its aim was to root for the Slovak culture and science.
1867 – Austrian – Hungarian (Magyar) compromise was accepted by the ruling Haspburg dynasty. The state was reshaped to the dual monarchy and the nationalities in Hungarian part of monachy were given out to the cruel magyarisation. So called „Nationalities law“ aknowledged only one Magyar nation in the country.
1875 – the Hungarian government banned Matica slovenska and all Slovak high schools.
1880 – the bulky emigration of Slovaks to the United States began. Till 1910 almost one third of Slovaks due the national and social oppression emigrated from the country.
1907 – the Slovak League in America was founded. The American Slovaks started the campaign for national freedom of Slovaks in homeland.
1918 – during the Great War (1914-1918) many Slovaks on the top with M. R. Stefanik fought on the side of Ententa for the freedom of Slovak nation. In May 1918 signed with Czechs so called Pittsbourg Agreement about creation of Czecho-Slovak state which should guarantee the homerule of Slovaks in Slovakia after creation of a state. On October 28, 1918 the Czechs declared Czecho-Slovak state in Prague. The representatives of Slovaks declared their will to affiliate to this state on October 30, 1918 by the Declaration of Slovak Nation. The Czechs broke their word and never accepted the Slovak in the new state as equal partner.
1918 – late in October 1918, the dream of generations of Magyar nationalists and chauvinists for ethnic pure Magyar state became reality. The oppressed nationalities (Slovaks, Romanians, Croats, Serbs, Ruthenians, Germans, Slovenes and Italians) left the old Hungarian Kingdom and enabled Magyars to have their aim of 1840 fulfill — to create an almost ethnically pure Magyarország – Hungary.
1920 – the new Czecho-Slovak state adopted a Constitution declaring Czecho-Slovakia as a national “Czechoslovak” state. The MPs did not respect the agreements between Slovaks and Czechs and the Versailles Treaty where the name of the new Republic was given as Czecho-Slovakia, and adopted the name Czechoslovakia without hyphen, which is a grammatical and political rarity without analogy in other languages or in political (geographical) terminology.
1921 – Slovak Peoples‘ Party under leadership of Reverend Andrej Hlinka began campaigning for legislative autonomy (home rule) of Slovakia within Czecho-Slovakia. It grew into the strongest political movement of the country. Since 1925 it represented more than 50% of ethnic Slovaks in the Republic.
1932 – new wave of political struggle for a solution of the Slovak question began. In Trenčianske Teplice the young Slovak generation declared its will to live in a Republic with equal rights for Slovaks and Czechs. In Zvolen the leaders of Slovak Catholic and Lutheran autonomist parties established a common Autonomist Bloc.
1938 – conference of four main European powers (United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany) took place in Munich handing over the Czecho-Slovak Republic to Hitler’s domination. Border regions of Bohemia and Moravia with ethnic German majority were given up to Germany, and southern Slovakia was by a decision adopted by Ribbentrop and Ciano in Vienna passed over to Horthy Hungary. Most Slovak political parties came to an agreement, declaring on October 6, 1938 in Žilina the authonomy of Slovakia. The Prague government accepted this decision without delay. J. Tiso became the first prime minister of autonomous Slovakia.
1939 – on March 9, 1939 the central government by a coup d´etat and illegally overthrew the Tiso government. The Slovak ministers of the central government were not informed on the measure. This step of central government enabled Germans to interfere into Slovak matters and to press the Slovak parliament to declare an independent state on March 14, 1939.
1942 – the Slovak government allowed deportation of the Slovak Jews to Poland. The Nazi government in Germany persuaded the Slovak government that they would be settled in eastern Poland. In reality, a huge majority of them was killed in Nazi concentration camps. About 58 000 Jews from about 110 000-strong Jewish community of Slovakia were extradited before President J. Tiso stopped the deportations.
1944 – Slovak National Uprising broke up against the Nazi domination and occupation. It was the second largest anti-Nazi uprising in Europe. For two months were Slovak soldiers fighting against almost six German divisions. The Slovak National Council declared the will of Slovaks to live with Czechs in a common state under an “equal to equal” condition.
1945 – the so-called Košice Governmental Program was adopted providing for even position of Slovaks and Czechs within the Republic. This program had never been carried out. The Czechs returned to their old „Czechoslovakistic“ routine.
1947 – former Slovak president J. Tiso was sentenced to death and executed. His trial and execution had nothing to do with correct process and justice.
1948 – Communist coup d´ettat took place. A new constitution was adopted guaranteeing a quasi autonomy of Slovakia in the Czecho-Slovak state..
1954 – process with so-called bourgeois nationalists on the top with G. Husák took place, giving out long-year jail sentences. Their main guilt was to have required that the Košice Governmental Program be fulfilled.
1958 – new wave of repression of Slovaks started. A process was held against a group of Matica Slovenská researchers who were sentenced as renegades due to their effort to publish a Slovak Encyclopaedia.
1960 – new constitution was adopted declaring a Socialist state under the leading role of the Communist party. The Slovak autonomy was fully canceled. A large-scale movement arose in Slovakia for a genuine equality in the state. This movement brought Alexander Dubček to the leading position in Slovakia and was one of decisive factors that led to the Prague Spring of 1968.
1968 – the Czecho-Slovak state was federalized. Two federal republics were established and the real base for Slovak-Czech equality was created. But this lasted only one year. In 1970 a new wave of centralization within the framework of post-1968 “normalization” began, destroying all efforts to find a common base for living in one state.
1977 – Charta 77 movement on the top with V. Havel was established. This attempt of opposition against communist regime did not have a large echo among the Slovaks due its Czechoslovakistic orientation. Though the Slovak question was crucial for the state, Charta 77 did not publish any document dealing with this matter till 1989. The Slovak opposition against Communist regime had strong religious appearance, mostly Catholic.
1989 – downfall of the Communist regime, leading to new hopes for the future. Everybody wanted the democracy but there were different perceptions of democratization between Slovaks and Czechs. The former wanted to achieve a real autonomy, not only a formal democracy, while the latter did not want to give up their dominant position in the state. It was impossible to find an acceptable agreement, and therefore political representatives of both nations agreed on a peaceful split.
1993 – on January 1, 1993 the Slovak Republic became an independent and sovereign state.